COTTON NEMATODE PESTS
There are four nematode species that affect cotton yield potential. The most widespread and potentially the most damaging is the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita).1 The remaining three nematodes: reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis), Columbia lance (Hoplolaimus Columbus), and sting (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) are not as prevalent across cotton growing areas, but can also greatly reduce yield potential.
SYMPTOMS IN THE FIELD
Nematode feeding symptoms are most noticeable when environmental conditions cause plant stress. Distribution varies, and soil type may increase the incidence of infestations. Southern root-knot and Columbia lance nematodes prefer sandy soils but can also reduce yield potential in other soil types. Nematode presence may be likely if one or more of the following are observed: production of nematode-susceptible crops for two successive years, areas in the field with stunted plants that wilt by midday, and stunted roots with possible galls or enlarged root tips (Figure 1). Symptoms of nematode damage can resemble nutrient-deficiency due to damaged roots not having enough surface area to uptake adequate water and nutrients from the soil. Irregular growth in oval patterns may be observed in the field.2 Symptomatic plants may be carefully removed from the soil to determine the presence of below-ground symptoms. Soil sample analysis can determine nematode species and population.
TESTING FOR NEMATODES
Predictive soil sampling is essential for developing a nematode management plan. Nematode presence is typically highest around harvest; therefore, it is recommended to sample within one month prior to harvest, immediately after harvest, or after the last irrigation. Samples should be taken with adequate soil moisture; however, if low soil moisture conditions persist two weeks after harvest, sample immediately. Take samples at a 45° angle, six to nine inches deep and four to five inches from the plant. Targeting the root zone ensures the inclusion of root fragments, increasing the likelihood of collecting nematodes in the sample.3 Soil should be sampled in a random pattern, mixed together, and packaged according to assay laboratory directions. Sample size should be limited to 20 acres or less and segregated by soil type, drainage, and crop history. Lab results will estimate the risk of nematode problems for the following year’s crop.
Diagnostic soil sampling may be used throughout the growing season if nematodes are suspected. Samples should be collected around the edges of symptomatic areas near the root zone when soils are not overly wet or dry. Store samples at room temperature and out of direct sunlight to ensure nematode survival. Ice packs may be used to keep samples cool, but should not be in direct contact with samples. For best analysis, samples should arrive within one day of sampling.
CULTURAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
Nematodes can not be eliminated from the soil, but it is important to keep populations at low levels to avoid potential yield and quality losses. Identifying nematode species and damage action threshold levels are essential for determining the appropriate control options. Nematode damage action thresholds may vary by species, soil type, and state. The following cultural practices may help growers reduce the impact from possible nematode infestations.
- Fertilize according to soil test recommendations. Healthy plants are less susceptible to nematode damage.
- Sub-soiling can reduce hardpans and encourage deeper and more vigorous root growth. Healthier and larger root systems can withstand nematode damage with less effect on crop growth.4
- Maintain weed control. Amaranths, common purslane, hairy vetch, morning glory, and velvetleaf are all good hosts of southern root-knot and reniform nematodes.5
- Rotate to non-host crops to interrupt the nematode lifecycle and reduce nematode populations. Several crop options may be available depending on nematode species and growing area (Table 1).
Incorporating cultural practices into a nematode management system may also be paired with the use of nematicides. Nematicides may be applied in various ways including: seed treatments, fumigation, and soil or foliar application.
Acceleron® Seed Applied Solutions Elite with Nemastrike™ Technology provides broad-spectrum nematode control for up to 75 days after planting.
Cotton growers may combine seed treatment nematicides with fumigants like Telone® II or a foliar-applied product like Vydate® C-LV to further suppress nematode development and feeding.6 However, chemical application timing and additional safety precautions may limit flexibility during the growing season.
Velum® Total uses two active ingredients to control nematodes and early season insects and can be applied either in-furrow or through low-pressure chemigation.
AgLogic™ 15G is a granular aldicarb product that can help to reduce insect and nematode damage. This product is not registered in all states and may not be available in your state. AgLogic 15G is similar to Temik®.
NEMATODE RESISTANT VARIETIES
Deltapine® offers new Nematode Resistant (NR) varieties that have been developed for moderately to highly infested fields. These NR varieties contain a native breeding trait found in cotton germplasm that not only resists southern root-knot nematodes but also suppresses reproduction, leading to population reduction compared to planting a susceptible variety. This trait provides season-long protection for the crop. The NR varieties have been bred to combine high yield potential with southern root-knot protection whether in southern root-knot-free or infested fields. Variety selection may be the most effective way to reduce southern root-knot nematode damage (Figure 2).
1 Wrona, A.F., Blasingame, D., Goodell, P., Gazaway, W.S., Mueller, J., Overstreet, C., and Wheeler, T. 1996. Timely soil sampling—a nematode’s nemesis. National Cotton Council. Cotton Physiology Today Vol. 7, No. 5. https://www.cotton.org/.
2 Rich, J.R. and Kinloch, R.A. 2005. Cotton nematode management. University of Florida IFAS Extension. ENY-004. http://ufdcimages.uflib.ufl.edu/.
3 Woodward, J.E. and Wheeler, T.A. Nematode sampling instructions for cotton producers on the Southern High Plains of Texas. Texas A&M Extension. http://lubbock.tamu.edu/.
4 Mueller, J., Kirkpatrick, T., Overstreet, C., Koenning, S., Kemerait, B., and Nichols, B. 2012. Managing nematodes in cotton-based cropping systems. Cotton Incorporated. http://www.cottoninc.com/.
5 Overstreet, C., McGawley, E.C., Hollier, C., Fromme, D.D., and Price, T. 2014. Nematode management. Louisiana State University. Pub 3354. http://lsuagcenter.com/.
6 Mueller, J.D. 2018. Cotton nematode control. Clemson University. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2018. https://clemson.edu/.
7 Attaway, D. 2016. Aldicarb coming back to the agriculture pesticide mix. Clemson University. http://newsstand.clemson.edu/.
Web sources verified 02/13/19.